Source code for falcon.util.misc

# Copyright 2013 by Rackspace Hosting, Inc.
# Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
# you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
# You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.

"""Miscellaneous utilities.

This module provides misc. utility functions for apps and the Falcon
framework itself. These functions are hoisted into the front-door
`falcon` module for convenience::

    import falcon

    now = falcon.http_now()


import datetime
import functools
import http
import inspect
import re
import unicodedata

from falcon import status_codes
from falcon.constants import PYPY
from falcon.constants import PYTHON_VERSION
from falcon.uri import encode_value

# NOTE(vytas): Hoist `deprecated` here since it is documented as part of the
# public Falcon interface.
from .deprecation import deprecated

    from falcon.cyutil.misc import encode_items_to_latin1 as _cy_encode_items_to_latin1
except ImportError:
    _cy_encode_items_to_latin1 = None

    from falcon.cyutil.misc import isascii as _cy_isascii
except ImportError:
    _cy_isascii = None

__all__ = (


_UNSAFE_CHARS = re.compile(r'[^a-zA-Z0-9.-]')

# PERF(kgriffs): Avoid superfluous namespace lookups
strptime = datetime.datetime.strptime
utcnow = datetime.datetime.utcnow

# NOTE(kgriffs): This is tested in the gate but we do not want devs to
#   have to install a specific version of 3.5 to check coverage on their
#   workstations, so we use the nocover pragma here.
def _lru_cache_nop(*args, **kwargs):  # pragma: nocover
    def decorator(func):
        # NOTE(kgriffs): Partially emulate the lru_cache protocol; only add
        #   cache_info() later if/when it becomes necessary.
        func.cache_clear = lambda: None

        return func

    return decorator

# NOTE(kgriffs):
if PYTHON_VERSION >= (3, 5, 4) and PYTHON_VERSION != (3, 6, 0):
    _lru_cache_safe = functools.lru_cache  # type: ignore
    _lru_cache_safe = _lru_cache_nop  # pragma: nocover

# PERF(kgriffs): Using lru_cache is slower on pypy when the wrapped
#   function is just doing a few non-IO operations.
if PYPY:
    _lru_cache_for_simple_logic = _lru_cache_nop  # pragma: nocover
    _lru_cache_for_simple_logic = _lru_cache_safe  # type: ignore

[docs]def is_python_func(func): """Determine if a function or method uses a standard Python type. This helper can be used to check a function or method to determine if it uses a standard Python type, as opposed to an implementation-specific native extension type. For example, because Cython functions are not standard Python functions, ``is_python_func(f)`` will return ``False`` when f is a reference to a cythonized function or method. Args: func: The function object to check. Returns: bool: ``True`` if the function or method uses a standard Python type; ``False`` otherwise. """ if inspect.ismethod(func): func = func.__func__ return inspect.isfunction(func)
[docs]def http_now(): """Return the current UTC time as an IMF-fixdate. Returns: str: The current UTC time as an IMF-fixdate, e.g., 'Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT'. """ return dt_to_http(utcnow())
[docs]def dt_to_http(dt): """Convert a ``datetime`` instance to an HTTP date string. Args: dt (datetime): A ``datetime`` instance to convert, assumed to be UTC. Returns: str: An RFC 1123 date string, e.g.: "Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT". """ # Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT return dt.strftime('%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S GMT')
[docs]def http_date_to_dt(http_date, obs_date=False): """Convert an HTTP date string to a datetime instance. Args: http_date (str): An RFC 1123 date string, e.g.: "Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT". Keyword Arguments: obs_date (bool): Support obs-date formats according to RFC 7231, e.g.: "Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT" (default ``False``). Returns: datetime: A UTC datetime instance corresponding to the given HTTP date. Raises: ValueError: http_date doesn't match any of the available time formats """ if not obs_date: # PERF(kgriffs): This violates DRY, but we do it anyway # to avoid the overhead of setting up a tuple, looping # over it, and setting up exception handling blocks each # time around the loop, in the case that we don't actually # need to check for multiple formats. return strptime(http_date, '%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %Z') time_formats = ( '%a, %d %b %Y %H:%M:%S %Z', '%a, %d-%b-%Y %H:%M:%S %Z', '%A, %d-%b-%y %H:%M:%S %Z', '%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %Y', ) # Loop through the formats and return the first that matches for time_format in time_formats: try: return strptime(http_date, time_format) except ValueError: continue # Did not match any formats raise ValueError('time data %r does not match known formats' % http_date)
[docs]def to_query_str(params, comma_delimited_lists=True, prefix=True): """Convert a dictionary of parameters to a query string. Args: params (dict): A dictionary of parameters, where each key is a parameter name, and each value is either a ``str`` or something that can be converted into a ``str``, or a list of such values. If a ``list``, the value will be converted to a comma-delimited string of values (e.g., 'thing=1,2,3'). comma_delimited_lists (bool): Set to ``False`` to encode list values by specifying multiple instances of the parameter (e.g., 'thing=1&thing=2&thing=3'). Otherwise, parameters will be encoded as comma-separated values (e.g., 'thing=1,2,3'). Defaults to ``True``. prefix (bool): Set to ``False`` to exclude the '?' prefix in the result string (default ``True``). Returns: str: A URI query string, including the '?' prefix (unless `prefix` is ``False``), or an empty string if no params are given (the ``dict`` is empty). """ if not params: return '' # PERF: This is faster than a list comprehension and join, mainly # because it allows us to inline the value transform. query_str = '?' if prefix else '' for k, v in params.items(): if v is True: v = 'true' elif v is False: v = 'false' elif isinstance(v, list): if comma_delimited_lists: v = ','.join(map(encode_value, map(str, v))) else: for list_value in v: if list_value is True: list_value = 'true' elif list_value is False: list_value = 'false' else: list_value = encode_value(str(list_value)) query_str += encode_value(k) + '=' + list_value + '&' continue else: v = encode_value(str(v)) query_str += encode_value(k) + '=' + v + '&' return query_str[:-1]
[docs]def get_bound_method(obj, method_name): """Get a bound method of the given object by name. Args: obj: Object on which to look up the method. method_name: Name of the method to retrieve. Returns: Bound method, or ``None`` if the method does not exist on the object. Raises: AttributeError: The method exists, but it isn't bound (most likely a class was passed, rather than an instance of that class). """ method = getattr(obj, method_name, None) if method is not None: # NOTE(kgriffs): Ensure it is a bound method. Raises AttributeError # if the attribute is missing. getattr(method, '__self__') return method
def get_argnames(func): """Introspect the arguments of a callable. Args: func: The callable to introspect Returns: A list of argument names, excluding *arg and **kwargs arguments. """ sig = inspect.signature(func) args = [ for param in sig.parameters.values() if param.kind not in (inspect.Parameter.VAR_POSITIONAL, inspect.Parameter.VAR_KEYWORD) ] # NOTE(kgriffs): Depending on the version of Python, 'self' may or may not # be present, so we normalize the results by removing 'self' as needed. # Note that this behavior varies between 3.x versions. if args and args[0] == 'self': args = args[1:] return args
[docs]@deprecated('Please use falcon.code_to_http_status() instead.') def get_http_status(status_code, default_reason=_DEFAULT_HTTP_REASON): """Get both the http status code and description from just a code. Warning: As of Falcon 3.0, this method has been deprecated in favor of :meth:`~falcon.code_to_http_status`. Args: status_code: integer or string that can be converted to an integer default_reason: default text to be appended to the status_code if the lookup does not find a result Returns: str: status code e.g. "404 Not Found" Raises: ValueError: the value entered could not be converted to an integer """ # sanitize inputs try: code = float(status_code) # float can validate values like "401.1" code = int(code) # converting to int removes the decimal places if code < 100: raise ValueError except ValueError: raise ValueError( 'get_http_status failed: "%s" is not a valid status code', status_code ) # lookup the status code try: return getattr(status_codes, 'HTTP_' + str(code)) except AttributeError: # not found return str(code) + ' ' + default_reason
[docs]def secure_filename(filename): """Sanitize the provided `filename` to contain only ASCII characters. Only ASCII alphanumerals, ``'.'``, ``'-'`` and ``'_'`` are allowed for maximum portability and safety wrt using this name as a filename on a regular file system. All other characters will be replaced with an underscore (``'_'``). .. note:: The `filename` is normalized to the Unicode ``NKFD`` form prior to ASCII conversion in order to extract more alphanumerals where a decomposition is available. For instance: >>> secure_filename('Bold Digit 𝟏') 'Bold_Digit_1' >>> secure_filename('Ångström unit physics.pdf') 'A_ngstro_m_unit_physics.pdf' Args: filename (str): Arbitrary filename input from the request, such as a multipart form filename field. Returns: str: The sanitized filename. Raises: ValueError: the provided filename is an empty string. """ # TODO(vytas): max_length (int): Maximum length of the returned # filename. Should the returned filename exceed this restriction, it is # truncated while attempting to preserve the extension. if not filename: raise ValueError('filename may not be an empty string') filename = unicodedata.normalize('NFKD', filename) if filename.startswith('.'): filename = filename.replace('.', '_', 1) return _UNSAFE_CHARS.sub('_', filename)
[docs]@_lru_cache_for_simple_logic(maxsize=64) def http_status_to_code(status): """Normalize an HTTP status to an integer code. This function takes a member of :class:`http.HTTPStatus`, an HTTP status line string or byte string (e.g., ``'200 OK'``), or an ``int`` and returns the corresponding integer code. An LRU is used to minimize lookup time. Args: status: The status code or enum to normalize. Returns: int: Integer code for the HTTP status (e.g., 200) """ if isinstance(status, http.HTTPStatus): return status.value if isinstance(status, int): return status if isinstance(status, bytes): status = status.decode() if not isinstance(status, str): raise ValueError('status must be an int, str, or a member of http.HTTPStatus') if len(status) < 3: raise ValueError('status strings must be at least three characters long') try: return int(status[:3]) except ValueError: raise ValueError('status strings must start with a three-digit integer')
[docs]@_lru_cache_for_simple_logic(maxsize=64) def code_to_http_status(status): """Normalize an HTTP status to an HTTP status line string. This function takes a member of :class:`http.HTTPStatus`, an ``int`` status code, an HTTP status line string or byte string (e.g., ``'200 OK'``) and returns the corresponding HTTP status line string. An LRU is used to minimize lookup time. Note: Unlike the deprecated :func:`get_http_status`, this function will not attempt to coerce a string status to an integer code, assuming the string already denotes an HTTP status line. Args: status: The status code or enum to normalize. Returns: str: HTTP status line corresponding to the given code. A newline is not included at the end of the string. """ if isinstance(status, http.HTTPStatus): return '{} {}'.format(status.value, status.phrase) if isinstance(status, str): return status if isinstance(status, bytes): return status.decode() try: code = int(status) if not 100 <= code <= 999: raise ValueError('{} is not a valid status code'.format(status)) except (ValueError, TypeError): raise ValueError('{!r} is not a valid status code'.format(status)) try: # NOTE(kgriffs): We do this instead of using http.HTTPStatus since # the Falcon module defines a larger number of codes. return getattr(status_codes, 'HTTP_' + str(code)) except AttributeError: return '{} {}'.format(code, _DEFAULT_HTTP_REASON)
def _encode_items_to_latin1(data): """Decode all key/values of a dict to Latin-1. Args: data (dict): A dict of string key/values to encode to a list of bytestring items. Returns: A list of (bytes, bytes) tuples. """ result = [] for key, value in data.items(): result.append((key.encode('latin1'), value.encode('latin1'))) return result def _isascii(string): """Return ``True`` if all characters in the string are ASCII. ASCII characters have code points in the range U+0000-U+007F. Note: On Python 3.7+, this function is just aliased to ``str.isascii``. This is a pure-Python fallback for older CPython (where Cython is unavailable) and PyPy versions. Args: string (str): A string to test. Returns: ``True`` if all characters are ASCII, ``False`` otherwise. """ try: string.encode('ascii') return True except ValueError: return False _encode_items_to_latin1 = _cy_encode_items_to_latin1 or _encode_items_to_latin1 isascii = getattr(str, 'isascii', _cy_isascii or _isascii)