Utilities

URI Functions

URI utilities.

This module provides utility functions to parse, encode, decode, and otherwise manipulate a URI. These functions are not available directly in the falcon module, and so must be explicitly imported:

from falcon import uri

name, port = uri.parse_host('example.org:8080')
falcon.uri.encode(uri)

Encodes a full or relative URI according to RFC 3986.

RFC 3986 defines a set of “unreserved” characters as well as a set of “reserved” characters used as delimiters. This function escapes all other “disallowed” characters by percent-encoding them.

Note

This utility is faster in the average case than the similar quote function found in urlib. It also strives to be easier to use by assuming a sensible default of allowed characters.

Parameters:uri (str) – URI or part of a URI to encode. If this is a wide string (i.e., six.text_type), it will be encoded to a UTF-8 byte array and any multibyte sequences will be percent-encoded as-is.
Returns:An escaped version of uri, where all disallowed characters have been percent-encoded.
Return type:str
falcon.uri.encode_value(uri)

Encodes a value string according to RFC 3986.

Disallowed characters are percent-encoded in a way that models urllib.parse.quote(safe="~"). However, the Falcon function is faster in the average case than the similar quote function found in urlib. It also strives to be easier to use by assuming a sensible default of allowed characters.

All reserved characters are lumped together into a single set of “delimiters”, and everything in that set is escaped.

Note

RFC 3986 defines a set of “unreserved” characters as well as a set of “reserved” characters used as delimiters.

Parameters:uri (str) – URI fragment to encode. It is assumed not to cross delimiter boundaries, and so any reserved URI delimiter characters included in it will be escaped. If value is a wide string (i.e., six.text_type), it will be encoded to a UTF-8 byte array and any multibyte sequences will be percent-encoded as-is.
Returns:An escaped version of uri, where all disallowed characters have been percent-encoded.
Return type:str
falcon.uri.decode(encoded_uri)[source]

Decodes percent-encoded characters in a URI or query string.

This function models the behavior of urllib.parse.unquote_plus, but is faster. It is also more robust, in that it will decode escaped UTF-8 mutibyte sequences.

Parameters:encoded_uri (str) – An encoded URI (full or partial).
Returns:A decoded URL. Will be of type unicode on Python 2 IFF the URL contained escaped non-ASCII characters, in which case UTF-8 is assumed per RFC 3986.
Return type:str
falcon.uri.parse_host(host, default_port=None)[source]

Parse a canonical ‘host:port’ string into parts.

Parse a host string (which may or may not contain a port) into parts, taking into account that the string may contain either a domain name or an IP address. In the latter case, both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are supported.

Parameters:host (str) – Host string to parse, optionally containing a port number.
Keyword Arguments:
 default_port (int) – Port number to return when the host string does not contain one (default None).
Returns:A parsed (host, port) tuple from the given host string, with the port converted to an int. If the host string does not specify a port, default_port is used instead.
Return type:tuple
falcon.uri.parse_query_string(query_string, keep_blank_qs_values=False, parse_qs_csv=True)[source]

Parse a query string into a dict.

Query string parameters are assumed to use standard form-encoding. Only parameters with values are returned. For example, given ‘foo=bar&flag’, this function would ignore ‘flag’ unless the keep_blank_qs_values option is set.

Note

In addition to the standard HTML form-based method for specifying lists by repeating a given param multiple times, Falcon supports a more compact form in which the param may be given a single time but set to a list of comma-separated elements (e.g., ‘foo=a,b,c’).

When using this format, all commas uri-encoded will not be treated by Falcon as a delimiter. If the client wants to send a value as a list, it must not encode the commas with the values.

The two different ways of specifying lists may not be mixed in a single query string for the same parameter.

Parameters:
  • query_string (str) – The query string to parse.
  • keep_blank_qs_values (bool) – Set to True to return fields even if they do not have a value (default False). For comma-separated values, this option also determines whether or not empty elements in the parsed list are retained.
  • parse_qs_csv – Set to False in order to disable splitting query parameters on , (default True). Depending on the user agent, encoding lists as multiple occurrences of the same parameter might be preferable. In this case, setting parse_qs_csv to False will cause the framework to treat commas as literal characters in each occurring parameter value.
Returns:

A dictionary of (name, value) pairs, one per query parameter. Note that value may be a single str, or a list of str.

Return type:

dict

Raises:

TypeErrorquery_string was not a str.

falcon.uri.unquote_string(quoted)[source]

Unquote an RFC 7320 “quoted-string”.

Parameters:quoted (str) – Original quoted string
Returns:unquoted string
Return type:str
Raises:TypeErrorquoted was not a str.

Miscellaneous

falcon.deprecated(instructions)[source]

Flags a method as deprecated.

This function returns a decorator which can be used to mark deprecated functions. Applying this decorator will result in a warning being emitted when the function is used.

Parameters:instructions (str) – Specific guidance for the developer, e.g.: ‘Please migrate to add_proxy(…)’‘
falcon.http_now()[source]

Returns the current UTC time as an IMF-fixdate.

Returns:The current UTC time as an IMF-fixdate, e.g., ‘Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT’.
Return type:str
falcon.dt_to_http(dt)[source]

Converts a datetime instance to an HTTP date string.

Parameters:dt (datetime) – A datetime instance to convert, assumed to be UTC.
Returns:An RFC 1123 date string, e.g.: “Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT”.
Return type:str
falcon.http_date_to_dt(http_date, obs_date=False)[source]

Converts an HTTP date string to a datetime instance.

Parameters:http_date (str) – An RFC 1123 date string, e.g.: “Tue, 15 Nov 1994 12:45:26 GMT”.
Keyword Arguments:
 obs_date (bool) – Support obs-date formats according to RFC 7231, e.g.: “Sunday, 06-Nov-94 08:49:37 GMT” (default False).
Returns:A UTC datetime instance corresponding to the given HTTP date.
Return type:datetime
Raises:ValueError – http_date doesn’t match any of the available time formats
falcon.to_query_str(params, comma_delimited_lists=True, prefix=True)[source]

Converts a dictionary of parameters to a query string.

Parameters:
  • params (dict) – A dictionary of parameters, where each key is a parameter name, and each value is either a str or something that can be converted into a str, or a list of such values. If a list, the value will be converted to a comma-delimited string of values (e.g., ‘thing=1,2,3’).
  • comma_delimited_lists (bool) – Set to False to encode list values by specifying multiple instances of the parameter (e.g., ‘thing=1&thing=2&thing=3’). Otherwise, parameters will be encoded as comma-separated values (e.g., ‘thing=1,2,3’). Defaults to True.
  • prefix (bool) – Set to False to exclude the ‘?’ prefix in the result string (default True).
Returns:

A URI query string, including the ‘?’ prefix (unless prefix is False), or an empty string if no params are given (the dict is empty).

Return type:

str

falcon.get_http_status(status_code, default_reason='Unknown')[source]

Gets both the http status code and description from just a code

Parameters:
  • status_code – integer or string that can be converted to an integer
  • default_reason – default text to be appended to the status_code if the lookup does not find a result
Returns:

status code e.g. “404 Not Found”

Return type:

str

Raises:

ValueError – the value entered could not be converted to an integer

falcon.get_bound_method(obj, method_name)[source]

Get a bound method of the given object by name.

Parameters:
  • obj – Object on which to look up the method.
  • method_name – Name of the method to retrieve.
Returns:

Bound method, or None if the method does not exist on the object.

Raises:

AttributeError – The method exists, but it isn’t bound (most likely a class was passed, rather than an instance of that class).

class falcon.TimezoneGMT[source]

GMT timezone class implementing the datetime.tzinfo interface.

dst(dt)[source]

Return the daylight saving time (DST) adjustment.

Parameters:dt (datetime.datetime) – Ignored
Returns:DST adjustment for GMT, which is always 0.
Return type:datetime.timedelta
tzname(dt)[source]

Get the name of this timezone.

Parameters:dt (datetime.datetime) – Ignored
Returns:“GMT”
Return type:str
utcoffset(dt)[source]

Get the offset from UTC.

Parameters:dt (datetime.datetime) – Ignored
Returns:GMT offset, which is equivalent to UTC and so is aways 0.
Return type:datetime.timedelta